The Economic History of Mexico

The Economic History of Mexico Richard Salvucci, Trinity University   Preface[1] This article is a brief interpretive survey of some of the major features of the economic history of Mexico from pre-conquest to the present. I begin with the pre-capitalist economy of Mesoamerica. The colonial period is divided into the Habsburg and Bourbon regimes, although […]

The Sterling Area

Jerry Mushin, Victoria University of Wellington 1931-39 One of the consequences of the economic crisis of 1929–33 was that a large number of countries abandoned the gold standard. This meant that their governments no longer guaranteed, in gold terms, their currencies’ values. The United Kingdom (and the Irish Free State, whose currency had a rigidly […]

Women Workers in the British Industrial Revolution

Joyce Burnette, Wabash College Historians disagree about whether the British Industrial Revolution (1760-1830) was beneficial for women. Frederick Engels, writing in the late nineteenth century, thought that the Industrial Revolution increased women’s participation in labor outside the home, and claimed that this change was emancipating. 1 More recent historians dispute the claim that women’s labor […]

Antebellum Banking in the United States

Howard Bodenhorn, Lafayette College The first legitimate commercial bank in the United States was the Bank of North America founded in 1781. Encouraged by Alexander Hamilton, Robert Morris persuaded the Continental Congress to charter the bank, which loaned to the cash-strapped Revolutionary government as well as private citizens, mostly Philadelphia merchants. The possibilities of commercial […]

An Overview of the Economic History of Uruguay since the 1870s Luis Bértola, Universidad de la República — Uruguay Uruguay’s Early History Without silver or gold, without valuable species, scarcely peopled by gatherers and fishers, the Eastern Strand of the Uruguay River (Banda Oriental was the colonial name; República Oriental del Uruguay is the official […]

The Economics of the American Revolutionary War

Ben Baack, Ohio State University By the time of the onset of the American Revolution, Britain had attained the status of a military and economic superpower. The thirteen American colonies were one part of a global empire generated by the British in a series of colonial wars beginning in the late seventeenth century and continuing […]

The National Recovery Administration

Barbara Alexander, Charles River Associates This article outlines the history of the National Recovery Administration, one of the most important and controversial agencies in Roosevelt’s New Deal. It discusses the agency’s “codes of fair competition” under which antitrust law exemptions could be granted in exchange for adoption of minimum wages, problems some industries encountered in […]

History of Workplace Safety in the United States, 1880-1970

Mark Aldrich, Smith College The dangers of work are usually measured by the number of injuries or fatalities occurring to a group of workers, usually over a period of one year. 1 Over the past century such measures reveal a striking improvement in the safety of work in all the advanced countries. In part this […]

The US Coal Industry in the Nineteenth Century

Sean Patrick Adams, University of Central Florida Introduction The coal industry was a major foundation for American industrialization in the nineteenth century. As a fuel source, coal provided a cheap and efficient source of power for steam engines, furnaces, and forges across the United States. As an economic pursuit, coal spurred technological innovations in mine […]