US Banking History, Civil War to World War II

Richard S. Grossman, Wesleyan University The National Banking Era Begins, 1863 The National Banking Acts of 1863 and 1864 The National Banking era was ushered in by the passage of the National Currency (later renamed the National Banking) Acts of 1863 and 1864. The Acts marked a decisive change in the monetary system, confirmed a […]

The Economic History of Australia from 1788: An Introduction

Bernard Attard, University of Leicester Introduction The economic benefits of establishing a British colony in Australia in 1788 were not immediately obvious. The Government’s motives have been debated but the settlement’s early character and prospects were dominated by its original function as a jail. Colonization nevertheless began a radical change in the pattern of human […]

Historical Anthropometrics

Timothy Cuff, Westminster College Historical anthropometrics is the study of patterns in human body size and their correlates over time. While social researchers, public health specialists and physical anthropologists have long utilized anthropometric measures as indicators of well-being, only within the past three decades have historians begun to use such data extensively. Adult stature is […]

The Economy of Ancient Greece

Darel Tai Engen, California State University – San Marcos Introduction 1 The ancient Greek economy is somewhat of an enigma. Given the remoteness of ancient Greek civilization, the evidence is minimal and difficulties of interpretation abound. Ancient Greek civilization flourished from around 776 to 30 B.C. in what are called the Archaic (776-480), Classical (480-323), […]

U.S. Agriculture in the Twentieth Century

Bruce Gardner, University of Maryland Considering that the basic facts about twentieth century agriculture are not seriously in dispute, it is surprising how differently they are seen by different observers. One constellation of views sees the farm sector as a chronically troubled place, with farmers typically hard pressed to survive economically and continually decreasing in […]

Advertising Bans in the United States

Jon P. Nelson, Pennsylvania State University Freedom of expression has always ranked high on the American scale of values and fundamental rights. This essay addresses regulation of “commercial speech,” which is defined as speech or messages that propose a commercial transaction. Regulation of commercial advertising occurs in several forms, but it is often controversial. In […]

Debt and Slavery in the Mediterranean and Atlantic Worlds

Published by EH.Net (October 2013) Gwyn Campbell and Alessandro Stanziani, editors, Debt and Slavery in the Mediterranean and Atlantic Worlds. London: Pickering & Chatto, 2013. xiv + 185 pp. $99 (hardcover), ISBN: 978-1-84893-374-3. Reviewed for EH.Net by Stanley L. Engerman, Department of Economics, University of Rochester. Debt and Slavery in the Mediterranean and Atlantic Worlds […]

The Development of American Finance

Published by EH.Net (January 2013) Martijn Konings, The Development of American Finance.? New York: Cambridge University Press, 2011.? xii + 199 pp.? $90 (hardback), ISBN: 978-0-521-19525-6. Reviewed for EH.Net by Scott A. Redenius, Department of Economics, Brandeis University. As the blurb on the inside cover notes, the decline of the U.S.-led international financial order has […]

Forms of Enterprise in 20th Century Italy: Boundaries, Structures and Strategies

Published by EH.Net (July 2012) Andrea Colli and Michelangelo Vasta, editors, Forms of Enterprise in 20th Century Italy: Boundaries, Structures and Strategies. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar, 2010. xii + 327 pp. $147 (hardcover), ISBN: 978-1-84720-383-0. Reviewed for EH.Net by Federico Barbiellini Amidei, Banca d?Italia. While it is well established in the economics literature that technological […]

Peaceful Surrender: The Depopulation of Rural Spain in the Twentieth Century

Published by EH.Net (June 2012) Fernando Collantes and Vicente Pinilla, Peaceful Surrender: The Depopulation of Rural Spain in the Twentieth Century. Newcastle-upon-Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2011.? viii + 202 pp. $60 (hardcover), ISBN: 978-1-4438-2838-3. Reviewed for EH.Net by Joan R. Ros?s, Department of Economic History and Institutions, Universidad Carlos III. Not only military history is […]