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Alcohol Prohibition

Jeffrey A. Miron, Boston University The prohibition of alcohol, 1920-1933, is one of the most interesting policy experiments in U.S. history. Temperance movements waxed and waned in the U.S. from early in the nineteenth century, and these movements produced numerous state prohibitions. Many of these prohibitions were subsequently repealed, however, and those that persisted were […]

Economic History of Tractors in the United States

William J. White, Research Triangle Institute The farm tractor is one of the most important and easily recognizable technological components of modern agriculture in the United States. Its development in the first half of the twentieth century fundamentally changed the nature of farm work, significantly altered the structure of rural America, and freed up millions […]

U.S. Agriculture in the Twentieth Century

Bruce Gardner, University of Maryland Considering that the basic facts about twentieth century agriculture are not seriously in dispute, it is surprising how differently they are seen by different observers. One constellation of views sees the farm sector as a chronically troubled place, with farmers typically hard pressed to survive economically and continually decreasing in […]

Agricultural Tenures and Tithes

David R. Stead, University of York The Tenurial Ladder Agricultural land tenures, the arrangements under which farmers occupied farmland, continue to be the subject of extensive study by agricultural historians and economists. They have identified a “ladder” of tenures broadly classified by the degree of independence each type offered the farmer. Some of the key […]

African Americans in the Twentieth Century

Thomas N. Maloney, University of Utah The nineteenth century was a time of radical transformation in the political and legal status of African Americans. Blacks were freed from slavery and began to enjoy greater rights as citizens (though full recognition of their rights remained a long way off). Despite these dramatic developments, many economic and […]

The History of the Aerospace Industry

Glenn E. Bugos, The Prologue Group The aerospace industry ranks among the world’s largest manufacturing industries in terms of people employed and value of output. Yet even beyond its shear size, the aerospace industry was one of the defining industries of the twentieth century. As a socio-political phenomenon, aerospace has inflamed the imaginations of youth […]

Advertising Bans in the United States

Jon P. Nelson, Pennsylvania State University Freedom of expression has always ranked high on the American scale of values and fundamental rights. This essay addresses regulation of “commercial speech,” which is defined as speech or messages that propose a commercial transaction. Regulation of commercial advertising occurs in several forms, but it is often controversial. In […]