The data set includes newly digitized product-level import and export quantities, values and duties from the Canadian Trade and Navigation tables, published annually in the federal government’s Sessional Papers.  The export data covers the years 1867-1913.  The import data covers the years 1869-1913.  There are 49,762 import product-years and 11,178 export product-years included in the data set.  Products are identified by 6-digit codes derived from the Harmonized Commodity Description and Coding System.  Industries are identified by 2-digit codes derived from the 1948 Standard Industrial Classification System.  Series descriptions and definitions, as well as detailed source information, acknowledgements and citations, are provided in separate work sheets in the master excel file (Cda_M_X_1867-1913.xlsx).  Text files with import and export series formatted for reading directly into statistical software are available upon request from Ian Keay.


Initial digitization of the import data for five-year intervals (1870-1910) was provided by Eugene Beaulieu and Jevan Cherniwchan.  Frank Lewis and Patrick Alexander provided support and help with the initial digitization.  Research assistance was provided by Katrina Brazzell, Bill Dorval, Hannah Keay and Xiangtao Meng.  All corrections, suggestions or questions regarding this data set should be directed to Ian Keay (


Published work using this data set includes:

Eugene Beaulieu and Jevan Cherniwchan (2014), “Tariff structure, trade expansion and Canadian protectionism, 1870-1910,” Canadian Journal of Economics 47, 144-172.
Patrick Alexander and Ian Keay (2018), “A general equilibrium analysis of Canada’s National Policy,” Explorations in Economic History 68, 1-15.
Patrick Alexander and Ian Keay (2019), “Responding to the first era of globalization: Canadian trade policy, 1870-1913,” Journal of Economic History, forthcoming.
Ian Keay (2019), “Protection for maturing industries: evidence from Canadian trade patterns and trade policy, 1870-1913,” Canadian Journal of Economics, forthcoming.


Excel file with all import and export series, descriptions, sources, acknowledgements and citations: