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Quade, A. European Economic History
California State University, Sacramento Departmetn of Economics Economics 112: European Economic History Dr. Ane Quade Lecture List Unit 1: The Mediterranean World in the Age of African Hegemony Section 1: The Nature of Economic History Themes and Periods of Economic History Grand Unifying Theories I Grand Unifying Theories II Theory and Evidence in Economic History Section 2: The Ancient World The History of Europe Begins in Africa Trade Networks of the Ancient Mediterranean The Rise and Fall of the Roman Empire Section 3: Feudalism and the Rise of Islam Introduction to the Middle Ages Feudalism and the Islamic Empire Social Structure in Medieval Christian Europe Section 4: Agriculture and Urban Life in Medieval Europe Medieval Christian and Islamic Agriculture The Fall and Rise of Medieval Cities Section 5: The End of the "Dark Ages" The Causes and Effects of the Bubonic Plague The Mediterranean World in the Age of African Hegemony Unit 2: Early Modern Europe: The Division Between North and South Section 6: From the Renaissance to the Reconquest The Economic Foundations of the Italian Renaissance Industry and the Family in Early Modern Europe The Rise of the Hapsburgs Section 7: Imperial Iberia The Christian Reconquest and the Invasion of Africa Iberia, Africa and the "New World" Gold, Demography and the Price Revolution Section 8: Agriculture and Structural Change The Mesta: Powerful Monopoly or Efficient Industrial Development? Agriculture and Public Policy in France The Dutch Rural Economy in the Golden Age Section 9: The Rise of England Henry and Elizabeth Famine and the Escape from Famine Unit 3: Modern Europe: The Age of European Imperialism Section 10: The Age of Revolution The Agricultural Revolution and the Rise of Modern Industry The Economic Causes of the US and French Revolutions The Scientific Revolution and Industrial Development Section 11: Patterns of Industrial Development Early Industrialisers Later Industrialisers Section 12: Social Effects of Industrial Development Growth and Redistribution Policies and Poverty Section 13: The Age of High Imperialism The Fall and Rise of Imperialism in the 19th Century Post-Napoleonic Decline Mid-Century Reversals Late-Century Revival Section 14: International Integration and Disintegration The Great Depression Pre-War Preconditions Post-War Preconditions Section 15: Europe Since the Second World War The Marshall Plan and the Bretton Woods Agreement Post-Imperial Europe? Europe Re-emerges?Economics 112: European Economic History Final Exam, Spring 1991 Dr. Ane Quade Instructions: Choose TWO questions from EACH set of questions below, for a total of FOUR questions. Answer each of the first pair of questions (Unit 3) in less than 200 words (1 large blue-book page or less). Answer each of the second pair of questions (Cumulative) in 350 words (2 large blue-book pages) or less. Your total set of answers should not exceed 6 pages. UNIT 3 QUESTIONS CHOOSE TWO 1. Compare and contrast the industrial development of England, France and Switzerland during the nineteenth century. Which, if any, had an "Industrial Revolution" during this time? 2. What were the impacts of the coming of the railroads on England, the Austro-Hungarian Empire and the Ottoman Empire between (roughly) 1860 and 1930? 3. Does Central Place Theory adequately describe the structural changes in England, Germany or France between 1700 and 1930? 4. Did the rise of European capitalism create inequality within European families, and/or between Europe and the rest of the world during the period 1700 - 1930? 5. Discuss the changes in the relationship between Europe and either Asia, Africa or south-Central America between 1700 and the onset of the first World War. CUMULATIVE QUESTIONS CHOOSE TWO 1. How did the role of agriculture change between the Ancient Age and the 1920s? Provide examples that support your answer from the Ancient Mediterranean, Medieval Europe and the Middle East, Early Modern Europe, and Modern Europe. 2. How has technological change affected the social structure of Europe since the development of agriculture? Support your answer with examples from each of the four time periods discussed in class. 3. Why were the causes of North-West Europe's transition from economic perifery to imperial master between the rise of Egypt and the First World War? Provide at least one example from each of the four time periods. 4. Dr. Cameron argues that demographic pressure may lead to either productivity advance or disaster, but that the onoly cause of productivity advance is demographic pressure. Is he correct on either or both of these points? Defend your answer using historical examples from each of the four time periods, including the Bubonic Plague epidemic of 1348 somewhere in your answer. 5. How important has international trade and finance been in the rise or fall of empires during the four time periods discussed in class? Provide examples from all periods. 6. The division of labor between households increased in Europe between -10,000 and 1930. What happened to the division of labor within households? Provide examples from each of the four time periods covered in class. Presentation for UARS, Spring 1991 Beyond the Canon Project Ane Quade, Economics Target Course: Econ 112, European Economic History, an upper division General Education course also available for elective credit toward the economics major The Traditional View: 1. Overview of important economic changes in Europe since the days of the Greeks and Romans. Topics vary depending on the theoretical perspective of the economic historian, but commonly include an examination of the role of taxes and government spending in generating the Fall of the Roman Empire, an analysis of feudalism as an economic system, the Industrial Revolution, the Railroad Boom of the 19th century, and the causes of the Great Depression. Conservative economists often focus on technological change and the growth of per capita income; liberals often pay special attention to the transition from an agricultural to an industrial economy, and on the role of governments; Marxists usually focus on the impact of technological change on the relationships between workers, landlords and capitalists. 2. Most traditional treatment of issues relating to race and ethnicity is to examine the economic relationships between England, France and Germany as ethnic divisions, or to mention that Europe had colonies in Asia, Africa and Latin America at various points in history. More thorough examinations might consider whether colonies provided economic benefits to the European powers, or to consider the role of European technological "improvements" in weaponry as a cause of the expansion of Europe's empires. Most treat the peoples that were conquered by the Europeans after the sixteenth century as primitive and tribal, using "shells instead of money" in a system that bordered on barter, with little or no technology. 3. The traditional treatment of gender by most economic historians is to ignore it. (The textbook I'm using, for example, doesn't mention even Elizabeth I or other powerful women.) Many assume that women's economic roles have always been to cook, clean, watch children and produce "nothing of economic value." A few show pictures of the "factory girls" of the Industrial Revolution, and comment that they were working to earn their doweries. Revisions to the Canon 1. Introductory thoughts on revising this course: a. Research famous women and include partial lectures on their lives. Have students write exam essays on the impact of the economic policies of Elizabeth I, Catherine the Great, or Empress Maria Theresa. b. Add lectures on the economies of the regions that became Europe's colonies "before and after" the European conquest. Have students write exam essays on the differences between the textbook presentation of Africa and the lecture materials. c. Add a short unit on the rise of Islam and the economic relations between the Arab and Ottoman Empires and Europe, including the Crusades. 2. What I have actually done so far: a. Changes in the syllabus -- 1) Divided the course differently. Formerly, there were 2 units, "Pre-Industrial Europe" and "Europe Since the Industrial Revolution." Now there are 3 units, "The Mediterranean World in the Age of African Hegemony (1000 BC to 1348)," " Early Modern Europe: The Division Between North and South (1348 to ca. 1700)," and " The Age of European Imperialism (1700-1960)." 2) The first unit now includes expanded coverage of the Mediterranean, Africa and the Middle East before the rise of Athens, including Nubia, Egypt, Phoenicia (Carthage) and Persia and their relationships to the European economies of the age. The role of slavery (both domestic and imported) in each of these economies is considered, as is the gender and age division of labor throughout the Ancient and Medieval Eras. The proposed unit on Islam and the Arab Empire has been developed. 3) The second unit includes an expanded discussion of the empires of West Africa before the arrival of the Europeans, including the Islamic Empires. An expanded coverage of the relationships between Catholic and Islamic Europe is now included. I have added materials on the impact of the slave trade in Africa and Latin America, and on the role of slavery in breaking the Arab's sugar monopoly and thus reducing Europe's trade deficit with the middle east. Changes in the role of the Catholic Church, the relations between Church and State are considered. The transition from the subsistence economy to family-based industries and later capitalist industries and trade monopolies is now included, including the impact of these changes on the division of labor within families. Additional material on "famous" women has been added as well. 4) Work on the third unit is still in progress. At this point, new materials on the division of labor within families are being developed, as well as an expanded coverage of the Partition of Africa. Additional materials on the history of European intervention in the Middle East will also be included. b. Changes in student assignments 1. The written participation of students in the course has been considerably expanded (for several reasons), in part to solicit student responses to these changes. Students are asked to write a series of weekly short essays on topics related to the lecture and text, and to redraft one of those essays for a grade. Options have been provided from both the "old" and the "new" materials. 2. So far, students have been extremely receptive to these changes, with considerably more than the expected proportion choosing to write their revisions on the "new" topics. (There seems to be very little ethnic or gender division over these choices; men chose last week to write about changes in the role of women just as frequently as women, and Euro-American students choose to write about the economies of Africa and the Middle East just as frequently as African- and Arab-Americans.) 3. Other Changes in Student Behavior a. Many more students of color in class. b. Higher level of student class participation. ECONOMICS 112: EUROPEAN ECONOMIC HISTORY SECOND UNIT EXAM, SPRING 1991 Dr. Ane Quade Choose two of the following questions. Answer each question in 200 to 250 words. 1. Many economic historians believe that agrarian feudalism was replaced by capitalism during the early modern period. Where, and to what extent do you think this was true? Defend your answer. 2. Fernand Braudel argues that the central economic core of Europe moved slowly from south to north during the early modern era. Describe the geographic steps in this transition. What were the most important economic causes of each step? (Note: We have covered this indirectly in class, so that it is not necessary to read even vol. 3 of Civilisation and Capitalism in the 15th - 18th Centuries to answer this question. Should you choose to read outside of the class assignments, however, this would be a good choice.) 3. The transition from Domestic Industry to Family Industry was more rapid in some regions of Europe than in others during the early modern period. Use the information you have about the division of labor between and within families and about the structural transitions made in Spain, Hapsburg Central Europe, the Low Countries and England to hypothesise about the relative changes in the economic roles of women in early modern Europe. 4. During the early modern period, Europe began the transition from economic perifery to colonial master of much of Asia, Africa and the Americas. Why and how did this occur? 5. What were the principal causes and effects of demographic changes in Europe between 1348 and 1700? Economics 112: European Economic History Questions for Unit 3 Modern Europe: The Age of European Imperialism Dr. Ane Quade 1. What was the Enclosure Movement ? How did it affect the structure of the English economy? 2. What were the three most important technological changes of the eighteenth century? What were their effects on England's economy? 3. Some economic historians believe that the British overseas empire was responsible for the rise of the English textile industry. To what extent do you think this is true? 4. How important were the colonies in the Americas to the economy of Great Britain? Describe their role in the British Colonial System. 5. The American and French Revolutions are often presented as springing from the same ideological foundations. Compare and contrast their economic causes. Were there similarities here as well? 6. How important was the crisis in public finance in generating the French Revolution? Was it more or less important than the other economic causes? 7. In the history of technology, what are the differences between invention, innovation and diffusion? Describe the pattern of industrial change in the nineteenth century using these concepts. 8. What was the Railroad Boom? What were its main causes and effects? 9. What was the relationship between demographic pressure and technological change during the nineteenth century? 10. How did technological change affect the development of agriculture during the nineteenth century? 11. What improvements in technology affected the integration of markets during the nineteenth century? Briefly, how did each do this? 12. Until the end of the nineteenth century, France had discovered very little coal per capita. In most of industrializing Europe, coal played a key role in the growth of income. How did France avoid the problems associated with coal shortages? What effects did this solution have on the nature of French industrial development at this time? 13. What were the most important causes of the industrial growth of Germany in the nineteenth century? 14. Did Switzerland have an Industrial (R)evolution in the nineteenth century? Defend your answer. 15. Describe and illustrate the Kuznets Curve. What are the theoretical reasons for its shape? 16. Did British capitalism create inequality during the period 1750-1850? Describe the changes in the distribution of income at this time. 17. Describe the basic features of Nineteenth Century Liberal economic policies. How did each affect the economy of Europe? 18. Describe the causes and effects of class conflicts during the nineteenth century. Focus on the Revolutions of 1848. 19. What was the New Poor Law? Why was it enacted? What were its economic effects? 20. Why did most of Europe return to protectionist policies in the late nineteenth century? 21. What were the economic causes and effects of the Suez Crisis of 1869? 22. What were the economic causes and effects of the Opium War? 23. What is meant by the Partition of Africa? What were its economic causes and effects? 24. What were the "rules of the game" under the gold standard? Did any of the participants play by these rules? 25. How did the partition of the Austro-Hungarian Empire affect the economies of Europe between the Peace and the beginning of the Depression? 26. What were the economic impacts of the partition of the Ottoman Empire after WWI? 27. Some economic historians believe that the behavior of England, assisted by France and Germany, between the Wars cost Europe its international hegemony. Do you agree?