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Lyons, J. Economic History of Modern Europe
MIAMI UNIVERSITY DEPARTMENT OF ECONOMICS Note to CS gopher users: Following syllabus is a copy of the one I use for myself; it includes many notes to myself in 'hidden text' which are suppressed when I print it up for my students. Some are obvious (e.g., references to handouts and 'visuals'); others (bibliographical references not listed in student version) are marked [hidden]. I have appended my writing assignments for this year, which range from precis work to a 'term paper'. The larger number of short assignments in 1994 (than in previous years) is an experiment, suggested by past experience and allowed by current enrollment of eleven students; comments or suggestions are welcome by e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. NB: File size for the entire set of documents is about 55K. ECONOMIC HISTORY OF MODERN EUROPE ECO 341 Fall 1994 TR 5:30 - 6:45 pm Laws 111 Growth, Development, and Structural Change in the Western European Economy, ca. 1650 - 1914 Dr. John Lyons Office M 1:00 - 3:00 pm Office: 213-D Laws Hall Hours: TR 4:30 - 5:15 pm Telephone: (529)-2853 W Noon - 2:00 pm and by appointment During the two and a half centuries covered by this course, the peoples of north-western Europe experienced four overlapping eras of change in size, structure and productivity of the economies -- indeed the economy -- in which they lived and died: a) In the years 1650 (and before) to 1800, commerce, manufactures and agriculture became more specialized within and integrated across regions, leading to aggregate income gains largely through trade on the basis of comparative advantage, and perhaps through an intensification of work effort recently called the 'Industrious Revolution'. b) From about 1760 to the 1840s, Britain underwent an 'Industrial Revolution', building on widespread commerce and a progressive agricultural sector with accelerated technological and organizational changes in manufacturing and transport. By the 1820s Britain had become by far the most productive economy in the world. c) From about 1780 to 1870 several areas in Western Europe themselves underwent their own industrializations, with similarities and contrasts to British industrialization that are matters of some dispute as well as interest. d) The latter half of the 19th century through the beginning of the first World War witnessed several developments in the European economies (and their offshoots) which mark the age in which we live -- the advent of large-scale corporate enterprise and science-based technical change, continuing expansion of world trade in manufactures and primary products, great migrations of people and capital, and intense international economic rivalry. Despite rapid and significant changes in technology, politics, society and economy in the past eight decades, much of the world of 1914 in western Europe and its offshoots is familiar in kind if not degree to those of us who now live in the 'industrial world'. The world of 1814, 1790 or 1660 was different altogether. How Europe found and followed its 'path to the 20th century' is our subject this term. READINGS Since there is no single textbook suitable for this course, readings are drawn from a selection of texts, monographs, and articles from scholarly journals in economic history. Required readings from books and anthologies are on reserve in King Library, as are others recommended for background reading or for use in writing assignments. Journal articles can be consulted in the periodicals collection. Required readings are available for purchase as a photocopy packet. PREREQUISITES / LIBERAL EDUCATION Prerequisites: Introductory microeconomics and macroeconomics (ECO 201 and ECO 202). Liberal Education: This course is part of a proposed Miami Plan Thematic Sequence in Economics, 'Exchange, Growth and Development in the Global Economy', consisting of ECO 344 (International economic relations) and two of ECO 341, ECO 342 (Comparative economic systems), ECO 343 (Economy of modern China), and ECO 347 (Economic development). COURSE REQUIREMENTS / GRADING This course will be both 'writing intensive' and 'speaking intensive': there will be six writing assignments -- five papers of varying length and one essay examination -- and one formal class presentation in addition to expected regular contributions to class discussion. Examination Final Examination: Tuesday, December 13th, 7:45 pm. (There will be no midterm exam.) Papers Three short papers (2.5 - 4 pages each), due September 15, October 6, and November 10. One term paper, to be completed in two stages: a) Preliminary analysis and bibliographical report, 5 pages maximum, due October 20th. b) Final version of paper, 14 pages maximum, due December 2. These assignments are described fully in separate handouts. [Gopher readers see below.] Presentation Each student will make a ten to fifteen minute presentation (perhaps in partnership with another) summarizing the argument of an assigned reading and raising questions for subsequent class discussion. See the separate handout. Evaluation Your basic grade is determined entirely by your written work, with weights as follows: short papers, 30%; term paper, 30%; final exam, 40%. Your course grade will be the basic grade, modified up or down (by as much as half a grade-point) by my assessment of your formal presentation and contributions to class meetings -- questions, comments, discussion, attendance. DISCUSSION The subject is vast, and the course is not a comprehensive survey of the issues, events, and processes of European economic development. Although some degree of survey is necessary, and you will thus be expected to read portions of older textbooks, most assigned readings are organized around several themes to be discussed in some depth. As continued disputes among scholars illustrate, what happened in history is subject to constant revision and re-interpretation. When we ask analytical questions such as how or why some complex phenomenon occurred, historians recognize that answers are provisional, and that sometimes the questions themselves are not well-formulated, or even presume 'facts' in evidence which 'just ain't so'. Modern European economic historical investigation is indeed as old as modern Europe, but both interpretation and evidence have continued to change. An important but very recent change has been two-fold: first, the advent of the computer, which has allowed large but previously- untouched masses of original data to be analyzed, and second, the incursion of professionally- trained economists into the scholarly world of economic history. As a result -- and this is neither all to the good nor all to the bad -- economic history in the past thirty years or so has become inherently more quantitative and statistical on the one hand, and more analytical and formally theoretical on the other. There is still much room for intuition, imagination, argument, and artistry, but this is now tempered by tighter limits on what is plausible. This course will investigate a few of the big questions about the rise of the modern industrial economy -- the advent and diffusion of what Simon Kuznets called 'Modern Economic Growth', its sources and its consequences. By the same token, we will ignore or simply mention in passing some other big questions -- why did 'Capitalism' appear when it did, and why Europe? We will grapple with other questions, such as 'Why did the technical and organizational changes that are usually called the "Industrial Revolution" first appear in Britain?', but, as you will see, we cannot fully answer them. COURSE OUTLINE AND READING LIST [Books and other items on reserve are listed in the addendum below;] [abbreviated entries are listed there in full.] The reading list contains two kinds of entries: a) The required readings are numbered sequentially in [square brackets]; you are expected to have read them before the relevant class meeting. b) The other works listed either provide supporting information for the assigned readings or contain material to be presented in lectures. PART A. Introduction and Overview [Aug. 23 - 30] What were the major transformations in European society and economy bridging the centuries between the medieval world and the industrial world of the 20th century? How do economic historians approach these issues? Landes discusses the social bases of economic growth in historical cases, from the perspective of the contemporary development 'problem', and Maddison defines and measures 'economic leadership'. We begin our reading with Wrigley's perspective on poverty and wealth in the pre-industrial world, and McCloskey's argument for the centrality of theory and measurement in historical study. David S. Landes, "Why are we so rich and they so poor?", American Economic Review; Papers and Proceedings, 80:2 (May 1990), 1-13. Angus Maddison, "Changes in Economic Leadership", ch. 2 of Dynamic Forces in Capitalist Development. Oxford: Oxford U. P., 1991. Visual/handout # 1: GDP per capita league table, 1820 - 1989; from Maddison 1991 above, pp. 6-7  E. A. Wrigley, "Why poverty was inevitable in traditional societies", in John A. Hall and I. C. Jarvie, eds., Transition to Modernity: Essays on Power, Wealth and Belief, Cambridge: Cambridge U. P., 1992, pp. 91-110. pages: 20. Visual/handout # 2.a: Phelps-Brown & Hopkins real wage diagram, from deVries 1993 below Visual/handout # 2.b: England: population growth vs real wage growth; from Wrigley, 'conundrum'  McCloskey, Econometric History, ch. 2 [ch. 3 recommended]. pages: 22 PART B. The European Economy before 'Industrialization': 16th-18th Centuries [September 1- 27; Monday classes meet on Tuesday, September 6] What were the characteristics of and limits to growth in the development of what Wrigley calls the 'advanced organic economy'? What were the interactions of organizational and technical changes in agriculture, the expansion of trade and regional specialization, the growth of population, and the increasing importance of the urban sector? William N. Parker, "The pre-history of the nineteenth century", ch. 2 of Parker, Europe, America, and the Wider World, vol. 1. Wrigley, Continuity, Chance and Change, chs. 1, 2 B. I. Agricultural Change [September 1 - 13] Productivity improvement in north-western European agriculture from late Medieval times to about 1800 was based on a combination of changes in land use and cropping patterns, organization, and property rights, strongly associated with growing market-based incentives. The Dutch led the way, as deVries points out in his discussion of a market-oriented specialization model; Jones discusses English agricultural practice, and Allen and O'Grada show that high (land) productivity was by the 18th century both widespread and multi-faceted. Clark has identified some anomalies in output, price and income data which lead him to doubt the existence of 'revolutionary' change in British agriculture in the 18th century.  Jan deVries, "Change in rural society, 1000-1800", ch. 1 of his The Dutch Rural Economy in the Golden Age, 1500-1700, New Haven CT: Yale U. P., 1974. [Appendices optional] pages: 17. deVries, Economy of Europe, ch. 2  E. L. Jones, "Agriculture and economic growth in England, 1660-1750: Agricultural Change", Journal of Economic History 25:1 (March 1965), 1-18; reprinted in his collection, Agriculture and the Industrial Revolution, New York: Wiley, 1974, ch. 3, pp. 67-84. pages: 18.. J. V. Beckett. The Agricultural Revolution, esp. ch. 3 (on enclosures).  Robert C. Allen and Cormac O'Grada, "On the Road Again with Arthur Young: English, Irish, and French Agriculture during the Industrial Revolution", Journal of Economic History 48:1, (March 1988), 93-116. pages: 24. E. L. Jones, "Agriculture, 1700-1800", in Floud & McCloskey, vol. 1. P. K. O'Brien, "Agriculture and the Industrial Revolution", Economic History Review 2nd. ser. 30:1, (February 1977), 166-181. [Hidden] Gregory Clark, "Agriculture and the Industrial Revolution, 1700-1850", ch. 4 in Mokyr, British Industrial Revolution, pp. 227-266. B. II. Trade, Rural Industry, Population Growth, Urbanization [Sept. 15 - 27] Agricultural specialization was associated with urbanization and expansion of commerce, especially within Europe, and some areas replaced agricultural employment in part with employment in rural industry. This change in the nature of available 'livelihoods', it is argued, upset the stable demographic regime of earlier centuries and led to the sharp increase in population growth rates after about 1750. Cipolla and deVries  discuss the role of commerce in European economic expansion, and Jones and Pollard delineate links between agricultural specialization and the rise of rural manufacturing (handicrafts, literally). Woods summarizes the major recent developments in our knowledge of English population history. Malcolmson surveys the 18th-century experience of work, and deVries  discusses the implications of a transformation of the west-European household economy in the pre-industrial period. Carlo M. Cipolla, "The emergence of the modern age", ch. 9 of his Before the Industrial Revolution, New York, Norton, 1976, pp. 205-30.  deVries, "The Dynamism of Trade", in Economy of Europe, ch. 4, pp. 113-146. pages: 34  E. L. Jones, "Agricultural Origins of Industry", Past and Present 40 (1968), pp. 58-71. pages: 14. Pollard, Peaceful Conquest, pages 63-78, on 'proto-industry'. B. II. Trade, Rural Industry, Population Growth, Urbanization [continued] E. A. Wrigley, "The Growth of Population in Eighteenth-Century England: A Conundrum Resolved", Past and Present 98 (February 1983), pp. 122-150.  Robert Woods, "Population growth and economic change in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries", in Mathias & Davis, First Industrial Revolutions, ch. 7, pp. 127-53. pages: 27 deVries, Economy of Europe, ch. 5, "Urbanization and regional trade" E. A. Wrigley, "A simple model of London's importance in changing English society and economy, 1650-1750", Past and Present 37 (1967), 44-70. R. W. Malcolmson, "Ways of getting a living in eighteenth-century England", in R. E. Pahl, ed., On Work: Historical, Comparative and Theoretical Approaches, Oxford: Blackwell, 1988, 48-60. pages: 13 A. W. Coats, "Changing attitudes to labour in the mid-eighteenth century", Economic History Review, 2nd. ser. 11 (1958), 35-51. [Hidden] Jane Humphries, "Enclosures, common rights and women: The proletarianization of families in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries", Journal of Economic History 50:1 (March 1990), 17-42. [Hidden] Jan deVries, "Between purchasing power and the world of goods: Understanding the household economy in early modern Europe", in Brewer and Porter, eds., Consumption and the world of goods, pp. 85-132.  Jan deVries, "The Industrial Revolution and the Industrious Revolution", Journal of Economic History 54:2 (June 1994), 249-70. Handouts: European urbanization patterns, 1650-1800; Transport improvement, economic growth and specialization. Population/economy Wrigley diagram/ discussion. PART C: Industrialization in Britain [Sept. 29 - Oct. 25] What is 'industrialization', and was the process in Britain really 'revolutionary'? Was it a technological phenomenon, or financial, or organizational? What was the social cost of early industrialization? C. I. The Idea of the 'Industrial Revolution' [Sept. 29] 'What happened' in England or Britain or the British Isles between about 1760 and 1850 has been the subject of continuing definition, debate, and re-interpretation. Crouzet points out both similarities and important differences between France and Britain in the 18th century. Cannadine reviews the changing historiography over the past century. Jones vigorously argues a 'gradualist' interpretation, while both Landes and O'Brien restate the case that there was indeed a 'revolution' in the British economy. McCloskey surveys and interprets the recent scholarship for us. Two excellent and stimulating surveys of the subject have been published by Mokyr, in 1985 and in 1993. Francois Crouzet, "England and France in the eighteenth century: a comparative analysis of two economic growths", in R. M. Hartwell, ed., The Causes of the Industrial Revolution in England, London: Methuen, 1967. David Cannadine, "The present and the past in the English Industrial Revolution, 1880-1980", as abridged for Berlanstein, ed., The Industrial Revolution and Work, ch. 1, pp. 3-25. pages: 23 E. L. Jones, "A Know-all's Guide to the Industrial Revolution", ch. 1 of Growth Recurring: Economic Change in World History. Oxford: Clarendon, 1988, 13-27. David S. Landes, "The fable of the dead horse; or, the Industrial Revolution revisited", in Mokyr, British Industrial Revolution, ch. 2, 132-70. C. I. The Idea of the 'Industrial Revolution' [continued] Patrick O'Brien, "Introduction: Modern conceptions of the Industrial Revolution", in O'Brien & Quinault, ch. 1, pp. 1-30.  Donald N. McCloskey, "Introductory Chapter for the period 1780-1860", in Roderick Floud and Donald N. McCloskey, eds., New Economic History of Britain, 1700 to the Present, second edition, forthcoming. pages: about equal to 30 Wrigley, Continuity, Chance and Change, ch. 3. [Hidden] Joel Mokyr, "The Industrial Revolution and the New Economic History", in Mokyr, Economics of the Industrial Revolution, ch. 1. [photocopy on reserve] Joel Mokyr, "Editor's Introduction: The New Economic History and the Industrial Revolution", in Mokyr, British Industrial Revolution, ch. 1 C. II. Origins, Nature and Measurement of 'Modern Economic Growth' in Britain [Oct. 4 - 11] The Industrial Revolution was technical change and changes in occupational patterns, modes of transport, financial institutions and much else. Landes supplies a classic survey with emphasis on technology and organization, while Mokyr rules out of court one of the oft-cited 'causes' of British industrialization. The chapter by Mathias is a compact discussion of banks and other financial institutions. Over the past fifteen years a debate has been building about the pace of economic growth in England/Britain during the classic 'Industrial Revolution' period. Lindert & Williamson, Harley, and Crafts have shown a) that the British rate of economic growth was considerably smaller from 1770 or so to 1840 than had been believed, at least since the 1950s, and b) that the British economy was both more diversified and larger before 1760 than had been thought. The implications of their work will be discussed in class, as will be the reaction from other scholars, of whom Berg and Hudson are an excellent recent example.  David S. Landes, The Unbound Prometheus, ch. 2, pp. 41-123.  Joel Mokyr, "Demand vs. Supply in the Industrial Revolution", Journal of Economic History 37:4 (December 1977), 981-1008; as reprinted in Mokyr, ed., Economics of the Industrial Revolution, pp. 97-118. For additional discussion of changes in technology, trade, finance, and so forth, see Deane, First Industrial Revolution, Chs. 6-8, or Mathias, First Industrial Nation, ch. 5. For recent revision of the macroeconomic record, see Crafts, British Economic Growth. Peter Mathias, "Financing the Industrial Revolution", ch. 4 of Mathias & Davis, pp. 68-85. pages: 18 Peter H. Lindert and Jeffrey G. Williamson, "Revising England's Social Tables, 1688-1812", Explorations in Economic History 19 (1982), 385-408. N. F. R. Crafts, "The New Economic History and the Industrial Revolution", ch. 2 of Mathias & Davis. Maxine Berg and Pat Hudson, "Rehabilitating the industrial revolution", Economic History Review 2nd. ser. 45:1 (February 1992), 24-50. N. F. R. Crafts and C. K. Harley, "Output growth and the British Industrial Revolution: A restatement of the Crafts-Harley view", Economic History Review 2nd series 45:4 (November 1992), 703-730. [Hidden] C. Knick Harley, "Reassessing the Industrial Revolution: A macro view", ch. 3 in Mokyr British Industrial Revolution, pp. 171-226. C. III. The Debate on Living Standards of British Workers [Oct. 18 - 25] Virtually since the first (textile) factory began operations the 'new' form of industry has had its critics and its defenders -- the critics, usually classed as the 'pessimists', were and are still dubious about the value of industrial growth to the first generation or two of industrial workers and their contemporaries; the defenders, known as 'optimists' of course, argue that very few workers could have lost much, given even modest growth (except, perhaps, because of the wars which sapped industrial expansion). Ashton assembles evidence of improving material standards in the central decades of the industrial revolution, while Hobsbawm succinctly puts a pessimist case. Lindert and Williamson thought they had settled the issue with new data and better analysis in 1983, but Mokyr showed that consumption data for several commodities would not support their 'optimistic' case. Horrell and Humphries aver that a major flaw in previous studies of material standards was failure to consider household income, and work by women and male and female children (about 70% of the population). Brown estimates the cost to workers and their employers of unpleasant and unhealthy urban living conditions. A different tack has been taken recently by other scholars such as Floud -- relating biological outcomes to living (nutritional) standards -- and good recent examples are provided by Nicholas and Steckel or Nicholas and Oxley. a. Material Standards  T. S. Ashton, "The Standard of Life of the Workers in England, 1790-1830", Journal of Economic History, Supplement IX (1949), as reprinted in Taylor, ed., The Standard of Living, ch. 3, pp. 37-57.  E. J. Hobsbawm, "The human results of the Industrial Revolution, 1750-1850", ch. 4 of his Industry and Empire, Baltimore: Penguin, 1968, pp. 79-96. Peter H. Lindert and Jeffrey G. Williamson, "English Workers' Living Standards during the Industrial Revolution: A New Look", Economic History Review, 2nd. ser. 36:1 (February 1983), 1-25; reprinted in Mokyr, Economics of the Industrial Revolution, ch. 9. pages: 25 R. S. Neale, "The Poverty of Positivism: from Standard of Living to Quality of Life, 1750- 1850", ch. 6 of Writing Marxist History: British Society, Economy & Culture since 1700. Oxford: Blackwell, 1985, pp. 109-140. [Hidden] Joel Mokyr, "Is there still life in the pessimist case? Consumption during the Industrial Revolution", Journal of Economic History 48:1 (March 1988).  Sara Horrell and Jane Humphries, "Old questions, new data, and alternative perspectives: Families' living standards in the Industrial Revolution", Journal of Economic History 52:4 (December 1992), 849-880. pages: 32 John S. Lyons, "Family response to economic decline: Handloom weavers in early nineteenth- century Lancashire", Research in Economic History 12 (1989), 45-91. [Hidden] John C. Brown, "The Condition of England and the Standard of Living: Cotton Textiles in the Northwest, 1806-1850", Journal of Economic History 50:3 (Sept. 1990), 591-614. b. Biological Standards R. Floud, "Standards of living and industrialization", in Digby and Feinstein, ch. 9.  Stephen Nicholas and Richard H. Steckel, "Heights and living standards of English workers during the early years of industrialization, 1770-1815", Journal of Economic History 51:4 (December 1991), 937-957. pages: 21 Stephen Nicholas and Deborah Oxley, "The living standards of women during the industrial revolution, 1795-1820", Economic History Review 2nd. ser. 46:4 (Nov. 1993), 723-49. PART D. Industrial Development on the Continent [Oct. 27 - Nov. 10] Industrial development on the continent, as recent scholarship has begun to stress, was rather different from what occurred in Britain, although with similarities which should not be ignored. How did agriculture, labor supply, and growth of industry compare with the British case? Do the differences imply Continental inferiority in any sense? Concentrating on industrial regions rather than nations, Pollard argues that Britain (i.e., British regions) was first and the Continent emulated, while Sylla and Toniolo survey Alexander Gerschenkron's case that Continental patterns of industrialization differed in systematic ways from their British precursor. We will examine Belgium, France and the German states, focusing on government development and trade initiatives, technological borrowing, investment banking, and the impact of railways. Tilly is especially good on assessing the Gerschenkronian schema, and Grantham on explaining patterns of productivity change in French agriculture (and, by extension, West European agriculture).  Sidney Pollard, "Industrialization and the European Economy", Economic History Review 2nd. ser. 26:4 (November 1973); reprinted with revisions in Mokyr, Economics of the Industrial Revolution, ch. 8, pp. 165-76. pages: 12 Richard Sylla and Gianni Toniolo, "Introduction" to Sylla & Toniolo, Patterns of European Industrialization, pp. 1-26. pages: 26 John A. Davis, "Industrialization in Britain and Europe before 1850: New Perspectives and Old Problems", in Mathias & Davis, ch. 3. N. F. R. Crafts, "Economic Growth in France and Britain, 1830-1910: A Review of the Evidence", Journal of Economic History 44:1 (March 1984), 49-67.  On Belgium, Milward & Saul, 1780-1870, ch. 7 (pp. 432-452).  On France, Trebilcock, Industrialization of the Continental Powers, ch. 3 (pp. 112-155). George Grantham, "Agricultural Supply during the Industrial Revolution: French Evidence and European Implications", Journal of Economic History 49:1 (March 1989), 43-72. pages: 30  Richard Tilly, "Germany", in Sylla & Toniolo, Patterns of European Industrialization, ch. 9, pp. 175-96. See also for France: Milward & Saul, 1780-1870, chs. 4 & 5; and for Germany: Milward & Saul, 1780-1870, ch. 6, and Trebilcock, ch. 2. Landes, Unbound Prometheus, ch. 3, discusses Western Europe generally, focusing on industries and power supplies. Pollard, Peaceful Conquest:, ch. 3, emphasizes industrial regions rather than nations, and ch. 4 discusses technology transmission and resource & capital supply. pages: about 80 PART E: The 'Second Industrial Revolution', the International Economy, and Industrial Competition [November 15 - December 6] The late 19th century (through 1914) was characterized by the spread of modern industry to many places outside Europe, and the eclipse of Britain as the premier industrial power by both the United States and Germany. This section will concentrate on a few elements of economic change in this period: the progressive integration of much of the world economy into an international network dominated by the North Atlantic industrial powers, the growth of the modern corporate form of enterprise, and changes in industrial leadership in both 'old' and 'new' industries. Background readings are Trebilcock, ch. 3 (pp. 150-198); Milward & Saul, 1850-1914, chs. 1, 2, 3; Landes, Unbound Prometheus, chs. 4, 5; Pollard, Peaceful Conquest:, ch. 7; and Floud in Floud & McCloskey, vol. 2, ch. 1.  Joel Mokyr, "The Industrial Revolution: Britain and Europe", The Lever of Riches, ch. 10. Nathan Rosenberg and L. E. Birdzell, Jr., "The Link between Science and Wealth", Chapter 8 of How the West Grew Rich. New York: Basic, 1986, pp. 242-268. pages: 27 E. I. International Flows of Goods and Factors [Nov. 17, 22]  Milward & Saul, 1850-1914, ch. 9.  Jonathan Hughes, "Growth of the International Framework to 1914", Chapter 7 of Industrialization and Economic History, pp. 138-161. pages: 24 R. Marvin McInnis, "The Emergence of a World Economy in the Latter Half of the Nineteenth Century", International Economic History Congress, Bern 1986: Debates and Controversies, Zurich: Fachvereine, 1986, 83-107. A. G. Hopkins, "British Imperialism: a Review and a Revision", in Digby & Feinstein, ch. 6. Mathias, First Industrial Nation, ch. 11. Hatton, Timothy J. and Jeffrey G. Williamson, 'What drove the mass migrations from Europe?', Population and Development Review 20:3 (September 1994), 533-59. [Hidden] E. II. International Competition, Economic Maturity and the Emergence of Large-Scale Industrial Enterprise [Nov. 29 - Dec. 1]  Alfred D. Chandler, jr., "Creating Competitive Capability: Innovation and Investment in the United States, Great Britain, and Germany from the 1870s to World War I", in Patrice Higonnet, David S. Landes and Henry Rosovsky, eds., Favorites of Fortune: Technology, Growth, and Economic Development since the Industrial Revolution. Cambridge, MA: Harvard U.P., 1991. pages: 27 C. K. Harley and D. N. McCloskey, "Foreign trade: competition and the expanding international economy", in Floud & McCloskey, vol. 2, ch. 3. Richard Tilly, "Mergers, External Growth, and Finance in the Development of Large-Scale Enterprise in Germany, 1880-1913", Journal of Economic History 42:3 (September 1982). Robert C. Allen, "International Competition in Iron and Steel, 1850-1913", Journal of Economic History 39:4 (Dec. 1979), 911-938. pages: 28 E. II. International Competition, Economic Maturity etc. [continued]  Steven Webb, "Tariffs, Cartels, Technology and Growth in the German Steel Industry, 1879 to 1914", Journal of Economic History 40:2 (June 1980), 309-29. pages: 21 William Lazonick, "The Cotton Industry", and Bernard Elbaum, "The Steel Industry before World War I", in Elbaum and Lazonick, eds., Decline of the British Economy . PART F: Retrospective [December 6, 8] For our last two meetings we will look back at the developments we have discussed from two viewpoints, on structures and processes. Crafts emphasizes the distinctiveness, even peculiarity, of structural change in British 'industrialization'. Parker, on the other hand, sees European economic development as a series of overlapping and unifying processes, dominated by tendencies linked with the perspectives of Malthus (population), Smith (trade and specialization), and Schumpeter (innovation and finance). N. F. R. Crafts, "British Industrialization in an International Context", Journal of Interdisciplinary History 19:3 (Winter 1989), 415-428. pages: 14  W. N. Parker, "European Development in a Millennial Perspective", from C. P. Kindleberger and G. di Tella, eds., Economics in the Long View, Volume 2, New York: New York U. P., 1982, pp. 1 -24; reprinted in Parker, Europe, America, and the Wider World, vol. 1, ch. 11, as "Opportunity sequences in European history". *** FINAL EXAMINATION [Tuesday, December 13th, 7:45 - 9:45 PM, Laws 111] *** -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- RESERVE LIST Books and folders containing required readings are on 2-hour reserve (in most cases with overnight privileges). Other materials placed on reserve (primarily for use in completing paper assignments) are on 1-day or 3-day reserve. An additional list of reserve materials will be distributed with the term paper assignment sheet. Please respect the due dates and times in consideration of your classmates. Lenard R. Berlanstein. The Industrial Revolution and Work in Nineteenth-Century Europe. New York: Routledge, 1992. J. V. Beckett. The Agricultural Revolution. Oxford: Blackwell, 1990. John Brewer and Roy Porter, eds. Consumption and the world of goods. New York: Routledge, 1993. N. F. R. Crafts. British Economic Growth during the Industrial Revolution. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1985. Phyllis Deane. The First Industrial Revolution, 2nd edition. Cambridge: Cambridge U. P., 1979. Anne Digby and Charles Feinstein, eds. New Directions in Economic and Social History. Chicago: Lyceum, 1989. Bernard Elbaum and William Lazonick, eds. The Decline of the British Economy. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1986. Roderick Floud and Donald McCloskey, eds. The Economic History of Britain since 1700. Cambridge: Cambridge U. P., 1981. Volume 1: 1700 - 1860. Volume 2: 1860 to the 1970s. Jonathan Hughes. Industrialization and Economic History: Theses and Conjectures. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1970. E. L. Jones. Growth Recurring: Economic Change in World History. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1988. David S. Landes. The Unbound Prometheus: Technological Change and Industrial Development in Western Europe from 1750 to the Present. Cambridge: Cambridge U. P., 1969. Donald N. McCloskey. Econometric History. London: Macmillan Education, 1987. Peter Mathias. The First Industrial Nation. An Economic History of Britain, 1700-1914, second edition. London: Methuen, 1983. Peter Mathias and John A. Davis, eds. The First Industrial Revolutions. Oxford: Blackwell, 1989. A. Milward and S. B. Saul. The Economic Development of Continental Europe, 1780-1870. London: Allen & Unwin, 1973. A. Milward and S. B. Saul. The Development of the Economies of Continental Europe, 1850- 1914. London: Allen & Unwin, 1977. RESERVE LIST [continued] Joel Mokyr, ed. The Economics of the Industrial Revolution. Totowa, NJ: Rowman and Allanheld, 1985. [The library's copy is missing and will ultimately be replaced. Meanwhile, a photocopy of Mokyr's introductory chapter is on reserve in a folder.] Joel Mokyr. The Lever of Riches: Technological Creativity and Economic Progress. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990. Joel Mokyr, ed. The British Industrial Revolution: An Economic Perspective. Boulder CO: Westview, 1993. Patrick O'Brien and Roland Quinault, eds. The Industrial Revolution and British Society. Cambridge: Cambridge U.P., 1993. William N. Parker. Europe, America, and the Wider World. Essays on the Economic History of Western Capitalism, Vol. I. Cambridge: Cambridge U. P., 1984. Sidney Pollard. Peaceful Conquest: The Industrialization of Europe, 1760-1970. Oxford: Oxford U. P., 1981. Richard Sylla and Gianni Toniolo, eds. Patterns of European Industrialization: The Nineteenth Century. New York: Routledge, 1991. Arthur J. Taylor, ed. The Standard of Living in Britain in the Industrial Revolution. London: Methuen, 1975. Clive Trebilcock. The Industrialization of the Continental Powers, 1780-1914. London: Longman, 1981. Jan deVries, The Economy of Europe in An Age of Crisis, 1600-1750. Cambridge: Cambridge U. P., 1976. E. A. Wrigley. Continuity, Chance and Change: The Character of the Industrial Revolution in England. Cambridge: Cambridge U. P., 1988. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- SHORT PAPERS All papers to be submitted typed or computer-printed, double-spaced, with normal margins (1 inch all around). Word limits below thus imply approximate length in pages. Short Paper 1 Precis. Choose one of Readings 4, 5, 6, or 7, and in 600 words or fewer (2.5 pages max) write a summary of the paper, showing how the author argues to his conclusion (i.e., uses logical chains of reasoning and relevant supporting evidence to support his case). [Submit by Sept. 15.] Short Paper 2 Reaction. Choose one of Readings 9, 10, or 12, and in 750 words or fewer (about 3 pages) react or respond to the reading. Your reaction may be anything you wish -- you may wish to denounce or defend it, evaluate, in part criticize, or praise to the skies, or even doubt its relevance to anything. Remember, however, that my reaction to your paper will be heavily influenced by how well you explain that your reaction is serious and not frivolous. [Submit by Oct. 6th.] Short Paper 3 Comparative analysis: Choose one of Readings 15, 16, 18, 19, or 20 and one other related assigned or recommended reading from the syllabus, and in an essay of 1,000 words or fewer (about 4 pages) evaluate the argument and evidence of the numbered reading, making specific reference to how the related reading supports or undercuts the assumptions, logic, and/or evidence of the numbered reading. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ECO 341, Lyons Fall 1994 TERM PAPER ASSIGNMENT Proposal (i.e., a preliminary paper & bibliography) due October 20th (in class or previously at my office hours). Final version of paper due Friday, December 2nd by 5 PM (in my mailbox in 208 Laws). Papers submitted early or on time will most likely be graded and returned by the last day of class, December 8th; papers with extensions (for which you must see me in advance) will be returned at the examination. Your task is to produce an analytical paper of 3,000 to 3,500 words on one of the topics specified below, which are largely but not exclusively related to issues treated in the second half of the course. Each topic is defined by a question or statement and a limited set of readings. [As an alternative, you may wish to define and investigate a topic of your own choice, subject to my approval in advance. See last page below.] Part 1. Proposal: By October 20th, submit a four to five page (double-spaced) discussion of two matters: a) a brief and clear comparative summary of two readings from the list under the topic (an exercise similar to the short paper assignments, especially short paper 3). Readings allowed for this exercise are indicated by *. Your discussion should show how each of these readings is related to the assigned topic, and on what major points the two readings contradict and/or support each other. You should attempt to identify points of contention which cannot be easily resolved using these articles alone. b) A brief and clear discussion of types of evidence (additional to that mentioned in part a) or argument (indicating general agreement or disagreement with authors discussed in part a) of other scholars who have written on the topic. [NOTE: It is not your task at this stage to state the results.] Part of this portion of your assignment is to find and read at least two relevant pieces of scholarly work not listed on the assignment sheet. c) The discussion must be accompanied (not counted in the page limit) by a bibliography, in a standard format, of the materials you have read and/or found which you anticipate using in writing the paper itself. Each bibliographical entry must be annotated with a brief statement (if not already discussed in a) or b) above) of how it is relevant to the topic. At this point your bibliography should include six to eight items, although the final paper will probably have a somewhat longer bibliography. Sources: Your access to the library's book collection, via keyword and other forms of searching, has recently been greatly enhanced by Sherlock. You should remember, however, that older books are not listed (even though the MU libraries possess them). References to articles in the scholarly literature are available on CD/ROM, the most useful of which is the Social Sciences Index ; MiamiLink also provides access to several periodicals databases in the Ohiolink system and to the FirstSearch service. In addition, there are several bibliographical works of considerable value available in print at the library, such as the Index to Economic Articles, Social Sciences Citation Index , and Social Sciences Index (the printed version is sometimes more useful than the computerized database). Also, don't forget the availability of human assistance. I will comment upon and grade your analyses by one calendar week after they are submitted; this grade will be one-quarter of the value of this paper assignment (or about one-twelfth of the basic course grade). Criteria for grading the proposal will include the clarity of your discussion, the ways in which you will limit and define the problem so that it can reasonably be discussed within the page limit for the paper, and your degree of adherence to one or another of the standard bibliographical and referencing systems to which you have been exposed. I may feel compelled to return an inadequate proposal for revision and resubmission. Part 2. Final version: The paper is due December 2nd by 5PM at my mailbox in 208 Laws. It should reflect your informed judgement of how to answer the question or how to evaluate the historical problem you discuss in the first part of the assignment. A good paper will include a clear statement of the problem, followed by an analysis of the evidence and argument employed by the scholars whose work you have chosen to read, and a conclusion which follows logically from your analysis. It may well be that you will reject entirely the work of some scholars and support fully the work of others, or it may be that all the work you read has some demonstrable defects. You must judge, even though you may feel you have insufficient experience to do so; remember simply that the ability to judge well comes only from having done so beforehand, that is, from practice. You should not expect that your work be either exhaustive or definitive -- most of the subjects assigned are more extensive than can be covered fully in a brief term paper. The emphasis should be on developing your ability to read, to understand, and to engage in the analysis of issues in economic history; part of this task is to choose a tractable subject and to focus on the essential issues. In this process you will, I expect, greatly improve your ability to interpret and evaluate the relevant quantitative and qualitative information available. Submissions should be typed or written with a word-processor, double-spaced with at least 1" margins all around, and should be a maximum of 14 pages long, including footnotes or endnotes, but excluding the bibliography/references. A note on research methods, reading sources, and writing your paper. This assignment is intended to give you additional and extensive practice in reading and understanding the professional literature in economic history, not to encourage you to do original research in primary sources and then to announce earth-shattering results. You must learn to walk confidently before you run. For each topic I provide on the following pages, I have listed a set of essential source readings, most of which you should read carefully. In addition, finding, reading, understanding and using at least two other sources is part of the assignment. However, there are truly relevant additional sources and others only vaguely related to the topic; generally I will know which is which, and part of my evaluation will be based on how well you performed in finding good rather than indifferent additional sources. I will soon place on 2-hour reserve three good books on research and writing: Cantor, Norman F. and Richard I. Schneider. How to Study History.New York: Crowell, 1967. Although it might be useful for you to read the whole book, there is doubtless no time for that; I recommend you have a look at chapters 5, on reading 'secondary sources,' 9, on writing the paper, and 10, on research methods, especially pages 181-195 on "How to use the library.' Officer, Lawrence H., Daniel H. Saks, and Judith A. Saks. So You Have to Write an Economics Term Paper. . . East Lansing MI: Michigan State University Press, 1981. This book is a nice complement to Cantor & Schneider, providing advice and tutelage for addressing economic issues. See chapter 2, 'What can I tell the prof who knows it all anyway?,' chapter 7, 'Facts, true facts, and false facts,' chapter 8, 'Finding out what's known even when it's wrong' (more on the library), and especially chapter 11, 'If it's straight from the horse's mouth, you had better name the horse.' McCloskey, Donald N. The Writing of Economics. New York: Macmillan, 1987. A brief book, with each chapter discussing a rule, as, for example: 2. 'Writing is thinking,' 4. 'Be Thou clear,' 8. 'Write too early rather than too late,' 13. 'Control your tone,' 22. 'Watch punctuation, weeding out excess commas,' 26. 'Avoid words that bad writers love.' TOPICS NOTES: Some topics/readings involve use of technical/statistical analysis; you can choose to avoid these, but in some cases a good deal of the important work is expressed in those terms and you should try to come to grips with it. Consult me about difficulties of interpretation. References to readings on the syllabus include both the required and the recommended materials. For Part a) of the proposal phase, read and discuss two of the starred readings (*). All others, including the two you must find on your own, should receive brief mention in part b) of the proposal or in the bibliography. Topic 1: Is "proto-industrialization", as defined and elaborated by F. F. Mendels, a useful concept in organizing our knowledge about the causes or sources of "modern" industrial development in 18th & 19th century Europe? Readings by Jones and Pollard, syllabus B.II. * Franklin F. Mendels, "Proto-industrialization: The First Phase of the Industrialization Process", Journal of Economic History 32:1 (March 1972), and comments by David Landes. * Rab Houston and K.D.M. Snell, "Proto-Industrialization? Cottage Industry, Social Change, and Industrial Revolution", Historical Journal 27:2 (1984), 473-492. Topic 2: To what extent did the "enclosure movement" contribute to rural depopulation and/or to the rise of an industrial proletariat in 18th century England? * J. D. Chambers, "Enclosure and Labour Supply in the Industrial Revolution", Economic History Review 2nd series 5 (1953). * Jane Humphries, "Enclosures, common rights and women: The proletarianization of families in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries", Journal of Economic History 50:1 (March 1990), 17-42. * Bennett D. Baack and Robert Paul Thomas, "The Enclosure Movement and the Supply of Labour during the Industrial Revolution", Journal of European Economic History 3:2 (Fall 1974). Topic 3: Was the concentration of workers in factories during the Industrial Revolution a consequence of technological changes or of the desire of capitalist employers to exercise tighter control over their workers? Readings by Landes, McCloskey and Mokyr (1985) or Mokyr (1993), syllabus, C.I., for background. * Stephen Marglin, "What do Bosses Do?", Review of Radical Political Economics 6:2 (1974). * David S. Landes, "What do Bosses Really do?", Journal of Economic History, 46:3 (Sept. 1986). Topic 4: Did economic changes in industry and agriculture in England in the period 1760-1850 restrict or expand the economic status of women, and to what extent? Reading by Berg and Hudson, syllabus, C.II., and reading by Humphries in Topic 2. * Joan W. Scott and Louise A. Tilly, "Women's Work and the Family in Nineteenth-Century Europe", Comparative Studies in Society and History 17:1 (January 1975). * Maxine Berg, "Women's work, mechanization and the early phases of industrialization in England", in Patrick Joyce, ed., The Historical Meanings of Work (1987) Katrina Honeyman and Jordan Goodman, "Women's work, gender conflict, and labour markets in Europe, 1500-1900", Economic History Review 2nd. ser. 44:4 (Nov. 1991), 608-28. Topic 5: Did France undergo an agricultural revolution in the 19th century? Readings by Allen and O'Grada and by * Grantham, syllabus, B.I. and D. * William H. Newell, "The Agricultural Revolution in Nineteenth-Century France", Journal of Economic History 33:4 (December 1973). George Grantham, "The Diffusion of the New Husbandry in Northern France, 1815-1840", Journal of Economic History 38:2 (June 1978) Topic 6: Was the British "Industrial Revolution" accompanied by a sharp increase in the rate of capital formation? Why or why not? Relevant portions of Mathias (book) and Mathias (article), syllabus, C.II. * Sidney Pollard, "Fixed Capital in the Industrial Revolution in Britain", Journal of Economic History 24:3 (September 1964), and reprinted in Francois Crouzet (ed.), Capital Formation in the Industrial Revolution, (1972). * Phyllis Deane, "The Role of Capital in the Industrial Revolution", Explorations in Economic History 10:4 (1973) Topic 7: Did the trans-Atlantic slave trade, and/or the employment of slave labor in the Americas, provide a major source of capital to finance early British industrialization? * Eric Williams, Capitalism and Slavery (1944), relevant chapters. * Stanley L. Engerman, "The Slave Trade and British Capital Formation in the Eighteenth Century: A Comment on the Williams Thesis", Business History Review 46 (1972) Barbara Solow, "Caribbean Slavery and British Growth: The Eric Williams Hypothesis", Journal of Development Economics 17 (1985) Topic 8: Can one defend the view that demand changes were a "cause" of the Industrial Revolution in England? [Hidden for 1994] Elizabeth W. Gilboy, "Demand as a factor in the Industrial Revolution", in A. H. Cole, ed., Facts and Factors in Economic History (1932), reprinted in R. M. Hartwell, ed., The Causes of the Industrial Revolution in England (1967) Readings by McCloskey, Mokyr or Mokyr, syllabus, C.I. O'Brien, Patrick, "Agriculture and the home market for English industry, 1660-1820", English Historical Review 100: 397 (October 1985),773-800. Topic 8: "Did British workers' living standards really improve as much from 1815 to 1850 as Lindert and Williamson say?" Articles in sections C.III.a. and C. III.b. of syllabus, especially * Lindert and Williamson, Mokyr, and Brown. * R. S. Neale, "The Poverty of Positivism: from Standard of Living to Quality of Life, 1750- 1850", ch. 6 of Writing Marxist History: British Society, Economy & Culture since 1700. Oxford: Blackwell, 1985, pp. 109-140. Topic 9: Is the pattern of industrialization on the Continent -- a different pattern from that of Britain -- an indicator of Continental backwardness relative to Britain, or just a different path to industrial growth? [Pick one Continental example.] * Alexander Gerschenkron, title article, Economic Backwardness in Historical Perspective (1962). Readings by Sylla & Toniolo, Pollard (article and portions of book), Trebilcock, and Davis, syllabus, D, as background. * Francois Crouzet, "Western Europe and Great Britain: 'Catching Up' in the First Half of the 19th Century", in A. J. Youngson, ed., Economic Development in the Long Run (1972). On France: * Article by Crafts, syllabus, D. John Vincent Nye, "Firm Size and Economic Backwardness: A New Look at the French Industrialization Debate", Journal of Economic History 47:3 (September 1987) [technical] On Spain: * Cesar Molinas and Leandro Prados de la Escosura, "Was Spain Different? Spanish Historical Backwardness Revisited", Explorations in Economic History 26:4 (1989), 385-402. Topic 10: "Did Victorian Britain fail?" [The question, in a sense, invites discussion of international competitiveness of Britain with her trading rivals in the mid- to late-nineteenth century, in a variety of sectors in manufacturing and services, along the lines of Part E.II of the syllabus.] * McCloskey, Donald N., article on the subject, Economic History Review 2nd series 23:3 (1970), reprinted in his Enterprise and Trade in Victorian Britain (1981). * Coleman, D. C. and Christine MacLeod, "Attitudes to New Techniques: British Businessmen, 1800-1950", Economic History Review 2nd. series 39:4 (Nov. 1986), 588-611. Articles by Allen, Webb, Lazonick, Elbaum, and by others in the Elbaum/Lazonick collection, just for starters. Topic 11: Evaluate the advantages or disadvantages to European trading countries of the movement to Free Trade and of the return to protectionism (except by the British) between the 1840s and ca. 1900. Articles by Hughes and Webb, chapter in M & S II, Pollard book (ch. 7), syllabus, E.. * Article by Harley & McCloskey in F & M: 2 * Charles P. Kindleberger, "The Rise of Free Trade in Western Europe, 1820-1875", Journal of Economic History 35:1 (1975). John Vincent Nye, "The Myth of Free Trade Britain and Fortress France: Tariffs and Trade in the Nineteenth Century", Journal of Economic History 51:1 (1991). Topic 12: Assess the (relative) importance of bank-led "entrepreneurship" and/or the developmental activities of the State in the rise of German industrial power. Portions of books by Trebilcock and Pollard, and chapter by Tilly, syllabus E. * Tilly, Richard, 'German Banking, 1850-1914: development assistance to the strong,' Journal of European Economic History 15 (1986), 113-52. * W. R. Lee, "Economic Development and the State in nineteenth-century Germany", Economic History Review 2nd series 41:3 (1988), 346-67. Topic 13: Is it possible to explain the "New Imperialism" of the late nineteenth century in economic terms? Article by Hopkins; chapter by Mathias, syllabus, E.I. * Jonathan Hughes, Industrialization and Economic History: Theses and Conjectures (1970), chapter 8. * P. J. Cain and A. G. Hopkins, "Gentlemanly capitalism and British expansion overseas II: new imperialism, 1850-1945", Economic History Review 2nd series 40:1 (1987), 1-26. Other possible topics and/or initial readings: If you choose a topic not listed above, you should be in a position to state the topic 'question', along the lines of the ones I have supplied, to develop a full bibliography, and to choose appropriately from that list of works the two to be summarized for the proposal. See me in advance if you wish to develop an independent topic. Turnbull, Gerard , "Canals, coal and regional growth during the Industrial Revolution", Economic History Review 2nd series 40:4 (Nov), 537-560. Turner, Michael , "English Open Fields and Enclosures: Retardation or Productivity Improvements", Journal of Economic History 46:3 (Sept.), 669-692. Sources of the European fertility decline in the later 19th century. The importance of literacy and general education to 19th-century industrial growth in Europe. The growth, diversification, and integration of financial markets and intermediaries in Western Europe, 1700-1870. [France, England, Belgium, "Germany"] Variations in the rate of expansion of "Big Business" in the major (and minor, for that matter) European economies in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Living standards for Continental European workers in the 19th century. [There is some good literature on Belgium especially.] The role of children and youth in European labor forces as industrialization proceeded in the 19th century. [Good literature on Britain and France.] The alleged influence of the small, conservative, family firm on the pattern of French industrialization. A review article on Robert C. Allen's recent book, Enclosure and the Yeoman: The Agricultural Development of the South Midlands 1450-1850. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 199