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Hoffman, R. Social and Economic History of Preindustrial Europe
YORK UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ARTS DEPARTMENT OF HISTORY 1989-1990 HISTORY 3210.06 SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC HISTORY OF PREINDUSTRIAL EUROPE R. Hoffmann, Course Director COURSE CALENDAR AND ASSIGNED READINGS Note: One copy of all materials assigned was requested for 2-hour reserve. If more copies are available another will be on one day reserve unless the assignment is very short. Check for stack copies, too. Items marked [P] below are assigned in their entirety and inexpensive editions have been ordered at the bookstore. I. Course Introduction. READ: J. Hicks, A Theory of Economic History, 1-8 R. Anderson, Traditional Europe, 1-18. Recommended for non-Europeanists: R. Reynolds, Europe Emerges, 1-66. 12 Sept Course Introduction. Europe: The Raw Material. II. Economic Structures and Change in Medieval Europe, ca.750-ca.1450 READ: J. Russell and L. White in C. Cipolla, ed., Fontana Economic History of Europe, vol. 1, 25-70 and 143-174. G. Duby, The Early Growth of the European Economy, 1-72 [P] Hicks, Theory, 9-24. 14 Sept Resources, Techniques, and Productivity in the Early Middle Ages. 19 Sept Manors and Men. 21 Sept Custom and Command. READ: Duby, Early Growth, 73-270 [P] R. Lopez, The Commercial Revolution of the Middle Ages, 1-167 [P] Hicks, Theory, 25-100. M. Guttman, Toward the Modern Economy, 1-47 [P]. 26 Sept Medieval Development as Phenomenon: Population, Agriculture, and Demand. 28 Sept Medieval Development as Phenomenon: Trade, Manufactures, and Towns. 3 Oct Explaining Medieval Economic Growth. 5 Oct The Problem of the Late Medieval Economy. III. A "Feudal" Elite, ca. 850-1350. READ: J. Powis, Aristocracy, 1-62 [P]. Duby, Early Growth, review 162-180 and 211-256 [P] G. Duby, "Lineage, Nobility and Chivalry...." in R. Forster and O. Ranum, eds., Family and Society, 16-40. Freed, J. "Reflections on the Medieval German Nobility," American Historical Review, 91 (1986), 553- 575. Pitt-Rivers, J. "Honour" in David L. Sills, ed., International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences (New York, 1968), vol. 6, pp. 503-511. 10 Oct Origins of Medieval Elites 12 Oct Aristocratic Status and Behaviour IV. Peasant Society, 1100-1700. READ: D. Thorner, "Peasant Economy as a Category in Economic History," in T. Shanin, ed., Peasants and Peasant Societies, 202-218. A. Macfarlane, The Origins of English Individualism, 7-33. B. Hanawalt, The Ties that Bound. Peasant Families in Medieval England, 3-105. [P] 17 Oct Peasants: Concept and Reality 19 Oct Rich Peasants and Poor READ: Hanawalt, Ties that Bound, 106-242. [P] R. Hilton, The Decline of Serfdom in Medieval England, 9-59. D. Sabean, "German Agrarian Institutions at the Beginning of the Sixteenth Century" in J. Bak, ed., The German Peasant War of 1525, 76-87. 24 Oct The Peasant Community. 26 Oct The Decline of Serfdom in the West. READ: Hanawalt, Ties that Bound, 243-268. [P] J. Blum, "The Rise of Serfdom in Eastern Europe," American Historical Review, 62 (1957), 807-836. L. Makkai, "Neo-Serfdom: Its Origins and Nature in East Central Europe," Slavic Review, 34 (1975), 225-238. P. Goubert, The French Peasantry in the Seventeenth Century, 1-97. [P] 31 Oct Agrarian Organization in the Early Modern West. 2 Nov The Rise of Serfdom in East Central Europe. READ: Goubert, French Peasantry, 97-237. [P] E. Wolf, "On Peasant Rebellions" in T. Shanin, ed., Peasants and Peasant Society, 264-274. F. Graus, "From Resistance to Revolt" in J. Bak, ed., The German Peasant War of 1525, 1-9. R. Hilton, Bond Men Made Free, 96-143. 7 Nov Peasant Rebellions 9 Nov The On-Going Conflicts 14 Nov HOUR TEST #1 or ESSAY #1 DUE (see p. 7 below) Covers work from 12 Sept through 9 Nov. Value 25% V. Families and Kinship in Preindustrial European Society READ: P. Laslett, "Characteristics of the Western family considered over time" in his Family Life and Illicit Love in Earlier Generations, 12-49. 16 Nov Family: Functions and Definitions READ: Review Hanawalt, Ties that Bound, 169-204. [P] D. Hughes, "Invisible Madonnas?" in S. Stuard, ed., Women in Medieval History and Historiography, 25-58. E. Wrigley, "Family Limitation in Pre-Industrial England," Economic History Review, 2d series 19 (1966), 82-109. M. Howell, Women, Production, and Patriarchy in Late Medieval Cities, 1-48. [P] 21 Nov Reproduction and the Family Setting for Child Rearing 23 Nov The Social Transmission of Property, I: Getting Married READ: A. BurguiŠre, "From Malthus to Max Weber: Belated Marriage and the Spirit of Enterprise," in R. Forster and O. Ranum, eds., Family and Society, 237-250. Review Hanawalt, Ties that Bound, 105-155. [P] Howell, Women, Production, and Patriarchy, 49-184. [P] 28 Nov The European Marriage Pattern and Domestic Groups 30 Nov Gender Roles READ: J. Goody et al., Family and Inheritance, 1-36. E. Le Roy Ladurie, "A System of Customary Law: Family Structures and Inheritance Customs in Sixteenth-Century France," in Forster and Ranum, Family and Society, 75-103. D. Sabean, "Family and Land Tenure: A Case Study of Con- flict in the German Peasant War," in B. Scribner and G. Benecke, eds., The German Peasant War of 1525, 174-189. 5 Dec The Social Transmission of Property, II: Inheritance 7 Dec BRIEFING ON PROSEMINAR MID-YEAR HOLIDAY VI. Pressures, Barriers, and Change in the Early Modern Economy, ca.1450-ca.1750. READ: P. Kriedte, Peasants, Landlords and Merchant Capitalists. Europe and the World Economy, 1500-1800, 1-60. [P] E. Hamilton, American Treasure and the Price Revolution in Spain, 186-210. 4 Jan The Price Revolution, I. 9 Jan The Price Revolution, II. READ: E. LeRoy Ladurie, "A Long Agrarian Cycle: Languedoc, 1500- 1700," in P. Earle, ed., Essays in European Economic History 1500-1800, 143-164. F. Braudel, "The Mediterranean Economy in the Sixteenth Century," in Earle, Essays, 1-44. G. Grantham, "Jean Meuvret and the Subsistence Problem in Early Modern France," Journal of Economic History, 49 (1989), 184-200. Gutmann, Toward the Modern Economy, 48-83 and 195- 203. [P] 11 Jan Population in the Long Sixteenth Century 16 Jan Technology, Manufactures, and Commercial Structures READ: E. Hobsbawm, "The Crisis of the Seventeenth Century," in T. Aston, ed., Crisis in Europe 1560-1660, 5-58. H. Kamen, "The Decline of Spain: A Historical Myth?" Past & Present, 81 (1978), 24-50. D. Sella, Crisis and Continuity: The Economy of Spanish Lombardy in the Seventeenth Century, 135-147. Kriedte, Peasants, Landlords, and Merchant Capitalists, 61-100. [P] 18 Jan The "Crisis of the Seventeenth Century." 23 Jan The Difficulties of Mediterranean Europe. READ: Gutmann, Toward the Modern Economy, 84-228. [P] E. Wrigley, "A Simple Model of London's Importance in Changing English Society and Economy 1650-1750," Past and Present, 37 (1967), 44-70 or reprinted in P. Abrams and E. Wrigley, eds., Towns in Societies, 215-244. Kriedte, Peasants, Landlords, and Merchant Capitalists, 101-157. [P] 25 Jan Crisis and Change in Northwest Europe. 30 Jan A Threshold? VII. Aristocracies, ca.1350-ca.1750. READ: Powis, Aristocracy, 63-102 [P] L. Stone, The Crisis of the Aristocracy (abridged ed.) [P] 1 Feb Aristocracy in Crisis: Stone's Model 6 Feb Aristocracies in Crisis on the Continent 8 Feb Aristocratic Reactions READING WEEK 20 Feb HOUR TEST #2 or ESSAY #2 DUE (see p. 8 below) Covers work from 16 Nov through 8 Feb. Value 25% VIII. Proseminar: Exploring the Margins of Scholarship in Socio-Economic History (see p. 10 below) [The following provisional calendar may be revised] 22 Feb Consultations on Proseminar Projects 27 Feb Two presentations and discussion 1 Mar Two presentations and discussion 6 Mar Two presentations and discussion 8 Mar Two presentations and discussion 13 Mar Consultations on Proseminar Projects 15 Mar Two presentations and discussion 20 Mar Two presentations and discussion 22 Mar Two presentations and discussion 27 Mar Two presentations and discussion 29 Mar Proseminar Review Discussion 3 April PROSEMINAR TEST VIII. Course Conclusion 5 April PROSEMINAR PAPERS DUE Concluding Lecture Distribution of TAKE-HOME COURSE FINAL EXAMINATION 18 APRIL IS THE LAST DATE LATE TERM WORK WILL BE ACCEPTED FOR ANY CREDIT WHATSOEVER TBA TAKE-HOME COURSE FINAL EXAMINATION DUE. VALUE 25% COURSE WORK ASSIGNMENTS 1. Grades in History 3210 are distributed as follows: 2 hour tests &/or 8-15 page (2000-4500 word) essays, each 25% = 50% Proseminar research experience (see p. zz below) = 25% Take-home course final essay examination = 25% 2. Hour tests/essays are scheduled once each term. At each due date each student has the choice of taking the test or submitting the essay before the start of the test. 3. Both hour tests include 40% objective and 60% essay questions taken from assigned readings and lectures. 4. Each essay assignment draws on material and/or issues covered in the course during the period before it is due. The topics assume knowledge and use of relevant course materials. Library study may be needed but they are not major research papers. Recommended topics for each essay assignment are given below, but students may write on other relevant subjects only if a 1-page written proposal is submitted and approved at least two weeks before the essay is due. All essays shall follow proper standards of presentation, citation, and academic honesty. Late essays receive greatly reduced credit. 5. Recommended Essay Topics ESSAY #1 due 14 Nov: Medieval Economy, Medieval Elites, Peasant Society a. Explore and analyze an early medieval code of customary law (The Burgundian Code and the Lombard Laws are available in English translations by K.F.Drew; Anglo-Saxon laws are in English Historical Documents, vol. 1) for what it can tell you about one of the following issues: social stratification women property and inheritance kinship material culture social violence local institutions farming practice b. By discussing the principles whereby goods and services were allocated, the means of distribution, the nature of economic values, and other issues you may think fundamental, compare the early medieval economy (ca600-ca1000) to a modern market exchange economy. Then consider in some depth the implications of this comparison for the usefullness of economic theory and concepts in seeking to understand the early medieval economy. c. Read P. Anderson, Passages from Antiquity to Feudalism (London, 1974). In a thoughtful and carefully-reasoned essay, discuss relationships between Anderson's approach, methods, and conclusions and those offered by Duby, Lopez, and Hicks. d. Use the documents in S. Goitein, Letters of Medieval Jewish Traders (Princeton, 1973), to test, qualify, illustrate, and/or amplify the interpretation of these people and their role that is offered by Lopez. e. Using the primary sources translated as J. Joinville and G. de Villehardouin, Chronicles of the Crusades (Harmondsworth, 1963 and later printings) as your principal sources of data, identify and illustrate several important behavioural and mental characteristics of thirteenth- century French aristocrats. f. Describe, compare, and evaluate Hanawalt's Ties that Bound and Goubert's French Peasantry as efforts to understand peasant society in preindustrial Europe. g. Read, summarize, and assess the scholarly literature done since 1970 and available in English on the German peasant war of 1525. What have been the main issues investigated? What results have been obtained? Where in your judgement ought research now be focussed? h. Using the primary texts available in R. Dobson, The Peasants Revolt of 1381, analyze this rebellion. i. Read one of the following and write on it a carefully analytical and evaluative book review. [Note. If you have not previously done a book review in history, see the instructor to be sure you know what is expected.] G. Bois, The Crisis of Feudalism. Cambridge, 1984. J. Bumke, The Concept of Knighthood in the Middle Ages. 1980. C. Dahlman, The Open Field System and Beyond. Cambridge, 1980 . B. Gelsinger, Icelandic Enterprise. Commerce and Economy in the Middle Ages. Columbia, S.C., 1981. R. Hodges, Dark Age economics. The origins of towns and trade. 1982. M. Keen, Chivalry. New Haven, 1984. W. Kula, An Economic Theory of the Feudal System. London, 1976. J. Langdon, Horses, Oxen and Technological Innovation. The use of Draught Animals in English Farming from 1066-1500. Cambridge, 1986. D. Sabean, Power in the Blood. Popular Culture and Village Discourse in Early Modern Germany. Cambridge, 1984. J. Shideler, A Medieval Catalan Noble Family: The Montcadas, 1000-1230. Berkeley, 1984. W. TeBrake, Medieval Frontier: Culture and Ecology in Rijnland. College Station, Tx., 1985. ESSAY #2 due 20 Feb: Families, the Early Modern Economy, Early Modern Elites a. Choose one sort of manufacturing and discuss the key features of its technology and organization in 15th-17th century Europe with a view especially to ascertaining and explaining the relative elasticity of supply compared to that of demand. Note: Singer, History of Technology in Scott Reference is a good place to start, but not to stop. b. Read two of the following books and compare the organization and operation of commerce and finance in the situations therein described. How do you explain the similarities? The differences? Note: do not pair Origo and Lane or the two books by Pike. I. Origo, The Merchant of Prato (late 14th century) F. Lane, Andrea Barbarigo, Merchant of Venice 1418-1449. R. De Roover, The Rise and Decline of the Medici Bank. R. Ehrenburg, Capital and Finance in the Age of the Renaissance (South Germans) P. Jeannin, Merchants of the Sixteenth Century (France) R. Pike, Enterprise and Adventure. The Genoese in Seville and the Opening of the New World. R. Pike, Aristocrats and Traders. Sevillan Society in the Sixteenth Century. V. Barbour, Capitalism in Amsterdam in the Seventeenth Century. c. Using as your principal starting point A. Maczak, H. Samsonowicz, and Peter Burke, eds., East-Central Europe in Transition from the Fourteenth to the Seventeenth Century (Cambridge, 1985) and other studies if you wish, describe and explain similarities and differences in the economic development of western and east-central Europe then. d. Read T.H. Aston and C.H.E.Philpin, eds., The Brenner Debate (Cambridge, 1985). Write a well-integrated essay dealing with at least the following questions. What was Brenner's thesis and argument? How has this been received by other scholars? Has the dispute shifted ground? How? Has it advanced our understanding of past reality? How? Where ought enquiry go from here? e. Review analytically and in the broad context of interpretive problems with the early modern economy V. Skipp, Crisis and Development: An ecological case study of the Forest of Arden 1570-1674 (Cambridge, 1978). If you think Skipp's approach has merit, discuss how it might be applied as a research design elsewhere. If you find it wrong-headed or poorly executed, suggest what you see as appropriate revisions. f. Compare and contrast approaches to the history of women employed in Hanawalt's Ties that Bound and in Howell's Women, Production, and Patriarchy. Consider how either one might have handled the research and findings presented by the other. [Note. This essay is not open to persons who wrote Essay #1f in November.] g. Describe, compare, and evaluate Kreidte's Peasants, Landlords, and Merchant Capitalists and Guttman's Toward the Modern Economy as approaches to understanding large-scale economic change in early modern Europe. h. Read comparatively and write a joint analytical review of J. Goody, The development of the family and marriage in Europe (Cambridge, 1983) and D. Herlihy, Medieval Households (Cambridge, Mass., 1985). i. Read one of the following and write on it a carefully analytical and evaluative book review. [Note. If you have not previously done a book review in history, see the instructor to be sure you know what is expected.] J. de Vries, European Urbanization 1500-1800. Cambridge, Mass, 1984. J. Flandrin, Families in Former Times. Kinship, household, and sexuality in early modern France. Cambridge, 1979. M. Flinn, The European Demographic System 1500-1820. Baltimore, 1981. D. Herlihy and C. Klapisch-Zuber, The Tuscans and their Families. Abridged translation, New Haven, 1984. V. Kiernan, The Duel in European History: Honour and the Reign of Aristocracy. Oxford, 1988. A. Macfarlane, Marriage and Love in England 1300-1840. Oxford, 1986. S. Ozment, When Fathers Ruled. Family Life in Reformation Europe. Cambridge, Mass., 1983. D. Nicholas, The Domestic Life of a Medieval City. Women, Children, and the Family in Fourteenth-Century Ghent. Lincoln, Neb., 1985. L. Pollock, Forgotten Children. Parent-child Relations from 1500 to 1900. Cambridge, 198 3. H. Rebel, Peasant Classes. The Bureaucratization of Property and Family Relations under Early Habsburg Absolutism, 1511-1636. Princeton, 1983. L. Stone, The Family, Sex, and Marriage in England 1500- 1800. New York, 1977. 6. The Proseminar In the final six weeks of the year independent research projects and seminar discussion are integrated into History 3210. In consultation with the instructor each student explores a topic of interest where innovative research is extending our knowledge about social and economic life in preindustrial Europe. Initial oral reports (15-20 minutes) on the results of exploration will be presented to the class for discussion and critique and a revised paper of 10-20 pages (2500-6000 words) submitted thereafter. All members of the class are responsible for serious intellectual engagement with all proseminar reports. The class will be briefed at the last meeting in December about research topics and tools to pursue them. Then before Reading Week each proseminar report will be scheduled for a class session in late February or March. One week before each report the presenter may assign up to 40 pages of background reading. After the seminar session each reporter proposes in writing to the instructor two (2) 10-minute essay questions about the material covered in the reading, report, and discussion about the project. A general review session follows completion of all reports (provisionally 29 March). The class meeting thereafter (provisionally 3 April) is a test containing one question about each project. Each student writes on four (4) topics other than her or his own. Performance on the entire proseminar is worth 25% of the course grade in History 3210 as follows: proseminar report single grade contribution to discussions single grade revised proseminar paper double grade test on proseminar work single grade HISTORY 3210.06 SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC HISTORY OF PREINDUSTRIAL EUROPE 1989-1990 TEST #1 14 November 1989 This test has two (2) parts, A and B. Do both parts. Part A: Multiple Choice (40%) INSTRUCTIONS. Write the numbers 1 through 10 on the first page of your booklet. For each question below choose the one response that best completes the statement or answers the question. Write the letter of that response after the question number in your booklet. You will be graded on the total of correct answers given. 1. The "path of service" to noble status in medieval Europe a. was pioneered by the knights. b. became a new route to elite membership during the period between about 850 and about 1050. c. was followed in the extreme by German ministerials. d. all of the above. e. none of the above. 2. A preindustrial European peasant normally a. lived in a domestic group of unrelated co-workers. b. had higher prestige than non-peasants. c. belonged to a culturally homogenous local community. d. exhibited seasonal preferences for status discrepancy. 3. In the Continental region of Europe a. winters are distinctly wet and summers dry. b. both the Atlantic and the Mediterranean moderate seasonal temperatures. c. people have a broader outlook. d. large areas of good flat land are traversed by long navigable rivers. 4. In the collective psychology of the early Middle Ages giving was the necessary counterpart of a. the potentiores. b. an economy with low productivity levels. c. the United Way. d. taking. 5. Long distance commerce in medieval Europe a. principally served peasant consumption markets. b. developed precociously in Italy and the northwest. c. had greatest importance between the seventh and the tenth century. d. depended critically on the services of Bohemian truck drivers. 6. Because they lived in a society of orders, preindustrial European peasants lacked the will and ability to resist a. lords. b. tax collectors. c. priests. d. all of the above. e. none of the above. 7. If you possessed a hereditary fief in early thirteenth century France you probably also a. did not work. b. at least considered enfranchisement and commutation. c. practiced endogamy with aristocratic females. d. all of the above. e. none of the above. 8. Which of the following would not likely be found in the house of a seventeenth-century French peasant? a. an arquebus or musket. b. a young servant. c. a bed. d. a stove. e. a chest of clothing. 9. Between about 1340 and about 1400 the population of Europe a. doubled. b. dropped by half. c. achieved stability. d. dropped by a third. 10. According to G. Duby, at the end of the twelfth century a. agricultural progress began to slow. b. the urban economy was made subservient to the rural economy. c. the profit motive steadily undermined the spirit of largesse. d. Dutch farmers invented the manure spreader. Part B: Essay (60%) INSTRUCTIONS. Write a concise but pointed essay on one  of the following topics. Please indicate in your booklet which essay you are writing. Either 1. Describe and compare how peasants, merchants, and lords each contributed to the process of economic growth in Europe from the tenth century to the fourteenth. Conclude your essay by considering why that process then stopped. Or 2. Describe and compare the principle lines of historical development experienced by peasants in western Europe and in east-central Europe between the twelfth century and the eighteenth. Conclude your essay by assessing the net effect of these changes upon basic structural elements of the peasant situation. HISTORY 3210.06 SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC HISTORY OF PREINDUSTRIAL EUROPE 1989-1990 Professor R. Hoffmann TEST #2 20 February 1990 This test has two (2) parts, A and B. Do both parts. You have sixty (60) minutes. Part A: Multiple Choice (40%) INSTRUCTIONS. Write the numbers 1 through 10 on the first page of your booklet. For each question below choose the one response that best completes the statement or answers the question. Write the letter of that response after the question number in your booklet. You will be graded on the total of correct answers given. 1. The Polish aristocracy a. was the largest in Europe. b. successfully resisted royal absolutism. c. gained financially from the Price Revolution. d. all of the above e. none of the above 2. Which of the following was not necessary for a legally valid marriage until 1563? a. sexual consummation b. blessing by a priest c. a contract between two families d. consent of two individual participants 3. Manufacture of paper and silk grew, as did specialized agriculture, but woollen textiles and shipping collapsed. This describes the economy of a. seventeenth century Italy. b. sixteenth century Italy. c. sixteenth century England. d. seventeenth century Spain. 4. In the view of Martha Howell, in late medieval cities men gained a monopoly over high status work outside the family because a. in a patriarchal society men alone could assume the political status such work required. b. capitalism excluded women from market production. c. the European marriage pattern required women to start bearing children well before the age of twenty. d. feudal rigidities were smashed only during the later crisis of the seventeenth century. 5. During the long sixteenth century European a. populations, prices, and real wages rose. b. populations rose but prices and real wages declined. c. populations declined but prices and real wages rose. d. populations and prices rose but real wages declined. 6. Among the formative elements for Dutch economic hegemony in Europe were a. the Renaissance invention of the windmill. b. warehouses for rye from the Baltic. c. revolts against the Hapsburg Emperor of Germany. d. low Italian wage rates. 7. Who invented the quantity theory of money to explain six- teenth century inflation? a. Irving Fisher. b. Earl Hamilton. c. Myron Guttman. d. Jean Bodin. 8. Inegalitarian inheritance practices are commonly associated with a. a social structure wherein a few large durable economic units (farms, landed estates, firms, etc.) are surrounded by many small and ephemeral ones. b. the custom of retrait lignager among married couples. c. delayed marriage and reduced nuptuality among heirs. d. all of the above e. none of the above 9. The mercantile dynasty of the Fuggers a. pioneered the Umlandfahrt. b. monopolized copper production in northern Hungary. c. established the European marriage pattern. d. loaned vast sums to the Great Elector. 10. Family life in preindustrial Europe was commonly shaped by a. the predominance of multiple-family dwellings. b. a high rate of extramarital pregnancy. c. a relatively high age of first marriage. d. emotional coldness toward small children. Part B: Essay (60%) INSTRUCTIONS. Write a concise but pointed essay on one  of the following topics. Please start a new page in your booklet and indicate there which essay you are writing. Either 1. Summarize briefly and separately the key arguments advanced by E. J. Hobsbawn and by Lawrence Stone in their efforts to explain how England came to lead Europe's great economic and social transformation after 1750. Then compare the two interpretive models and evaluate their success. Or 2. Describe and compare the social institutions of mar- riage and inheritance in preindustrial Europe, giving attention for each to the concerned parties, the nature of their interests, and the results of their interactions. Or 3. Delineate and analyze the interconnections among population trends, technology, and the money supply in the European economy between about 1450 and about 1620.